Global inequalities are massive and present one of the biggest obstacles to sustainable development and the fight against poverty. Inequality within many countries has been rising in recent years. Inequalities limit the opportunities for social groups to participate in and make significant contributions to social, cultural, political and economic life. Therefore, Goal 10 focuses on reducing inequality within and among countries.
In concrete terms, Goal 10 advocates delivering sustained income growth to the poorest 40% of the global population and achieving empowerment and social, economic and political inclusion for all by 2030. Goal 10 aims to ensure equal opportunities through the elimination of discriminatory laws, policies and practices, while facilitating orderly and safe human migration and mobility via the implementation of sound migration policies for example. It also envisages enhanced representation and a greater voice for developing countries in decision-making within international economic and financial institutions.
Goal 10: Reduce inequality within and among countries
10.1: By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average
10.2: By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status
10.3: Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard
10.4: Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality
10.5: Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen the implementation of such regulations
10.6: Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing countries in decision-making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions
10.7: Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies
10.a: Implement the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, in accordance with World Trade Organization agreements
10.b: Encourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to States where the need is greatest, in particular least developed countries, African countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their national plans and programmes
10.c: By 2030, reduce to less than 3 per cent the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5 per cent